David Sinclair

David Sinclair is a geneticist at Harvard who is recognized by Time Magazine as one of the 100 most influential people in the world. Sinclair is one of the world’s leading experts on anti-aging research and recently made a number of breakthrough discoveries that may allow humans to live significantly longer, healthier lives. 

Recently, Sinclair published a book called Lifespan: Why We Age and Why We Don’t Have To. Here are some answers to the questions you may have about Sinclair, his personal diet and regimen, and some of the compounds he discusses in his book.

David Sinclair daily supplements

  • Sinclair takes a gram of NMN every the morning. He takes this gram of NMN in a spoonful of yogurt (that he makes himself). This is based on clinical trials that show that NMN will raise the levels of NAD in the body. 
  • Sinclair also mixes about half a gram of resveratrol in the yogurt that he uses for consuming NMN as well. (resveratrol comes in a powder form). 
  • At night, Sinclair takes a gram of metformin. He calls this the most radical thing he takes. Metformin is a prescribable drug for diabetes. He says he takes this to prevent cancer, heart disease, Alzheimers, and aging. He considers a gram to be a low dose. Some diabetics take 2 grams a day. 
  • Sinclair takes Astatine because he has high cholesterol, though his colleagues tell him this is horrible for him and it’s slowly killing him.  
  • Sinclair takes a daily Vitamin D supplement. 
  • He takes a daily vitamin k2 supplement.

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Source: YouTube

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David Sinclair aging supplements

The supplements that David Sinclair uses to elongate his life are NMN, resveratrol, and metformin. Learn more about Sinclair’s dosing in the section above entitled “David Sinclair Daily Supplements.”

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Sinclair never recommends any supplements, as this would break his code of ethics and present a potential conflict of interest. Instead, Sinclair is simply transparent about the supplements that he personally takes, and allows people to make the decision for themselves. 

For a complete list of David Sinclair daily supplements, read the above section entitled “David Sinclair Daily Supplements.”

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David Sinclair joe rogan supplements

David Sinclair disclosed the supplements he uses to elongate his life in episode #1234 of Joe Rogan’s podcast, The Joe Rogan Experience. This episode came out in January of 2019. For a complete list of David Sinclair daily supplements, read the above section entitled “David Sinclair Daily Supplements.”D

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Sirtuin Molecules

About 20 years ago, Lenny Goruntee (sp?) and a team of researchers at MIT, including Sinclair, discovered a set of genes that control aging in yeast cells (brewers yeast, what you find in beer and bread). Those genes are called sirtuins, and there are seven of them in our body. There’s 5 of them in yeast. What sirtuins do is protect all organisms on the planet—plants, bacteria, humans, etc.—from deterioration and disease. They sense when we’re hungry or exrcising, and  they “send out the troops” to defend us.

So when you put more of these genes into a yeast cell or a mouse, they live for much longer. How much longer? Between 5 – 20% longer. He believes these genes are responsible for the effect of dieting and exercise. And what that means is that they can now mimic that with molecules. NMN and resveratrol are among those molecules.

You can think of Resveratrol as the accelerator pedal for the sirtuin genes, and NMN is the fuel. So without fuel, resveratrol won’t work. So in other words, NMN is the fuel that allows resveratrol to work. 

Sirtuins needs NAD to work. Without NAD, sirtuins won’t work. And in fact, if you didn’t have any NAD in your body you would be dead in about 30 seconds. It’s a really important molecule. But as we get older, we lose NAD. By the time you get to be about 50, you have about half the levels of NAD that you may have had when you were 20. And that’s not good. And sirtuins don’t protect the body without high levels of NAD. 

So what NMN and NR do—both of which you can get on the internet—is boost the body’s levels of NAD back up to youthful levels again. If you give these molecules to mice—or to worms or yeast—they live longer and are super healthy.

It’s not enough to just take these molecules and sit around watching TV. These molecules augment a healthy lifestyle to get you further than what you could get naturally.

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Can we reap the benefits of fasting without fasting?

At least in a mouse, and probably in a human in a few years time, Sinclair believes that certain molecules and supplements will allow us to trick the body into believing that it’s hungry and in adversity, even if we’re eating a lot, or not exercising. The idea is to eventually be able to grow and reproduce quickly, while still turning on these protective pathways and live a long time. The best example is the nematode worm, C. elegans. This worm has been studied a lot for longevity. What researchers have found is that the mutations that make these worms live from 2 – 10 times longer are activating genes that are normally only turned on when they hunker down and turn into a little dower stage, meaning they’re not really reproducing they’re just hibernating. So you can have the benefits of this hibernation stage while still living a healthy, normal life. 

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NMN 

Nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) is a nucleotide. Nucleotides are organic molecules made up of nucleosides linked to a phosphate. They form the basic structural units of DNA and other nucleic acids.

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NMN is related to nicotinamide riboside (NR), which is sold by a bunch of companies. 

Sinclair says that it’s extremely rare that you will experience side effects or get sick from taking any of these molecules. This has been demonstrated by millions of patients around the world. The worst you will have, according to Sinclair, is a stomach upset. And he sometimes gets that, which he says is actually helpful, because he loses his appetite. 

Sinclair ramps up on molecules that activate pathways that have evolved since the beginning of life so that we can last longer during adversity so we can thrive when the adversity goes away and the good times come back.

Sinclair and his team have been running tests on mice who they’ve administered NMN. They administer NMN to a portion of the mice through their drinking water, then have them run on treadmills. These studies are double blind, so neither the mice nor the researchers overseeing the mouse treadmills know which mice are ingesting NMN. The mice they work with are old—the equivalent of a 65 year old human.

An interesting thing happened in these experiments. The treadmills the mice were using were only programmed to run for 3 kilometres before they stopped, as no mouse had ever run that far before. One day Sinclair got a call from one of the researchers, who told him that the mice had actually broken the treadmill—it stopped before the mice were ready to stop running. In other words, the mice who were administered with NMN, despite being old mice, had run further than any other mouse had ever run before on record. 

The reason why NMN works, according to Sinclair, is that the lining of our blood-vessels need NAD. But as we get older, we lose the amount of NAD we have in our blood-vessels. NMN replenishes this NAD and allows the blood-vessels lining to respond to exercise and even grow blood vessels if you don’t exercise. 

In the example of the mice, they ran for significant amounts of time but did not get any lactic build up—which normally happens when you run—and didn’t get tired. The researchers even tried pinching off an artery, and their arteries responded much better in terms of restoring blood flow.

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Resveratrol 

One of the infamous molecules that Sinclair works with is resveratrol, which is found in red wine. He believes molecules like resveratrol are produced by plants, because plants are benefiting from the stress. He calls this hormesis, which refers to the beneficial aspects of a little bit of stress. A little bit of stress is good for you.

This molecule steps on the accelerator pedal of the sirtuins, which directly controls the body’s defences against aging. 

If you create a yeast cell, or take a worm or mouse, and then knock out the gene for the sirituin, now the resveratrol does not help the animal anymore. 

Resveratrol is also produced by hormesis (beneficial stress). If you stress a grape for wine making, for example, not only will you get great wine, but you’ll also get a lot of resveratrol. When we ingest that resveratrol from plants, we get the same health benefits. This is because the plants are activating their sirtuin pathways, and we have the same sirtuins and they activate us as well. 

He found that if he gave resveratrol to a mouse daily, and fed it only every other day, they had the longest lifespan yet.

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Hormesis

This refers to the idea that a little bit of stress is good for you. A sort of “what doesn’t kill you, makes you stronger” type idea. Hormesis was discovered about 60 – 70 years ago when people were spraying herbacides on plants and found that a little bit of herbacides actually made the plants stronger. Sinclair and his team believe that these molecules (i.e. sirtuins) in plants are similar—they make the plant stronger during times of stress. 

If you stress a grape for wine making, for example, not only will you get great wine, but you’ll also get a lot of resveratrol.

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Metformin

In studies of 10,000 people and more, it’s been shown that people who take Metformin—regardless of if they have diabetes—are protected against diseases of aging. Even frailty. Most scientists in sinclair’s field, if you ask them, are likely to say that Metformin will extend your lifespan. It’s just that the FDA doesn’t let you have it for aging, because aging isn’t a disease.

A doctor would have to be convinced to perscribe this to you. They typically don’t keep up with the literature, and Metformin is off label. 

Over the last 20 years, scientists like Sinclair have figured out that there are universal regulators of aging—from yeast, to worms, to mice, to humans. There are three main pathways that respond to how we eat and how we exercise. One of them is called AMPK, which is a target of metformin. So when you take metformin you’re activating AMPK, which will “send out the troops.” Sirtuins are the second of the pathways. Sinclair takes NMN  and resveratrol for that. The third one is called mTOR, which is a pathway in the body that responds to how many amino acids—how much meat—you’re eating. And this will also protect the body if you tweak it in just the right way. And besides eating low amounts of protein, the only way to effect the mTOR pathway is with a drug called rapamysin. Sinclair says that rapamysin is a bit dangerous to try. rapamysin is used for immunosuppressant. He doesn’t recommend taking rapamysin. sinclair himself doesn’t take rapamysin. 

One of the things metformin does is measure your blood glucose. 

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 mTOR

mTOR (rapamysin), which again, is too dangerous to try on normal people, has been tried on elderly people, and it boosted their immune system in the same way that they’ve seen with calorie restricted mice. This was an early signal that it may be possible to reverse aspects of aging in elderly people with this drug. 

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How to mitigate sagging and aging skin

They don’t yet know, but they’re working on it with a cosmetic company. However, the mice they’re running tests on do stay younger looking as well as being physically fitter. 

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Biological age

Insidetracker can help determine this through biomarkers. But there’s also a new method called the DNA clock.

Researcher Steve Horvath is well known for this. What the DNA clock is. 

DNA is always changing over time , and the epigenome is also changing. And overtime, we acquire what Sinclair calls “little scratches” on our DNA. Sinclair and his team of researchers now believe they know what these “scratches” are and how to remove them. What they are, are little chemicals called methyls that bind to DNA. The older we get, the more methyls we accumulate on our DNA. And scientists can now read these and determine whether someone of a particular age is older or younger than their chronological age. They also now believe they can reverse this (using the method described in the glaucoma treatment). 

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Nicotinamide riboside(NR) and pterostilbene (PT)

Nicotinamide Riboside is a supplement that raises the levels of a molecule called NAD in the human body.

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One randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study—the gold standard methodology of clinical research—determined that consuming a daily combination of nicotinamide riboside (NR) and pterostilbene (PT) reliably increased NAD+ levels and sustained them. This study was published in the journal npj Aging and Mechanisms of Disease.

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NAD supplement side effects

The beauty of the longevity molecules like NMN that help restore NAD in the body is that they may be prescribed for diseases like Alzheimer’s or liver disease, but as a side effect, they’ll also protect your body against other diseases and harmful conditions like cancer. In other words, unlike most other drugs, the side effects of these longevity drugs are actually beneficial rather than potentially harmful.

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How to increase NAD levels naturally

If you give NAD to an animal or a cell, it’s absorbed pretty poorly. NAD is a big molecule. NMN is a smaller version of NAD that gets into cells quickly. 

NAD is thought to not be well absorbed in the body compared to these other smaller molecules that the body then turns into NAD once it gets into the body. 

It is not entirely clear whether it is possible to increase NAD levels naturally without using supplements. Many claim that eating more raw foods that contain Vitamine B can help to increase NAD levels. Others also claim that intermittent fasting can also help to boost the body’s NAD levels. Many also believe that engaging in regular exercise (30 minutes per day) can help to naturally boost NAD levels. 

Again, whether these claims are accurate cannot be confirmed. But whether or not these strategies boost NAD, proper diet and exercise is probably still your best bet for improving your overall health and elongating your life. Even David Sinclair says that molecules like NMN act to augment a healthy lifestyle, and will never replace proper diet and exercise completely. In other words, if you ingest molecules that boost your NAD but sit in front of the TV all day eating chips, you’re not going to be optimizing your health. 

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David Sinclair intermittent fasting

Sinclair does intermittent fasting. He snacks late at night, but tries to skip breakfast and even skip lunch if he’s busy enough. 

A study came out on mice that shows it’s not what you eat, it’s when you eat, that is the most important for longevity. It doesn’t matter if you eat a lot in the morning or a lot at night. You just need a period of hunger (if you’re a mouse, probably if you’re a human) to put your body into defensive mode. 

He believes that certain molecules will be even more effective than intermitant fasting. And when he ads these molecules on top of a healthy diet and exercise in animals, they do even better. It “supercharges” them. Adding intermittent fasting to this regime too is yet another compounding factor. 

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David Sinclair calorie restriction

Sinclair says that scientists have known for about 70 years now that if you restrict the calories of animals, yeast cells, and worms, they live longer. This, according to Sinclair, is the most robust way to prevent heart disease, Alzheimer’s, and cancer in a mouse. 

What is calorie restriction? It’s reducing your calorie intake about 20 – 30% from what your doctor would recommend for your body. However, Sinclair says this is extremely unpleasant and he tried and failed to maintain this calorie restricted diet. 

Intermittent fasting on the other hand is more doable. It’s not always pleasant, but it works. 

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David Sinclair psoriasis

Sinclair says that they have developed a molecule that seems to effectively treat a disease called psoriasis. It’s a pill that activates a sirtuin. The name of this molecule is SRT2104.

This drug is still under experimentation and very difficult to get ahold of. 

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Anti-oxidants

Going back to the 1980’s, scientists in his field were focusing on anti-oxidants and mutations, because people didn’t really have a handle on what was going on in the human body, and the idea that you could slow down aging with one gene or one drug was ludicrous because aging is so complicated. But now scientists have determined from genetic studies that you can find mutations—hundreds of them in organisms—that lengthen lifespans. So it’s not as complicated as they thought.

The old theories about aging need to be thrown out in his opinion. People will often tell you about anti-oxidants, free radicals, DNA damage or mutations. That is all, for the most part, incorrect, according to Sinclair. 

Anti-oxidants, according to Sinclair, have been a big failure in the anti-aging field.

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Branch Chain Amino Acids (BCAA):

Why do people see a performance benefit when they consume BCAA’s?

In the short term, just like taking testosterone, BCAA will give you performance benefits. But scientists like Sinclair believe that in the long run it will actually come back to bite you. This is because BCAAs will activate the mTOR pathway. When scientists activate this mTOR pathway in animals, they see a reduction in their lifespan. So you want to keep the BCAA levels low. 

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This is all very counter intuitive for some. But Sinclair describes it as being a trade off. According to Sinclair, there’s a theory that he believes is probably correct, which is Thomas Kirkwood’s theory called the Disposable Soma Theory. This is one of the few mainstream theories in the field of aging. The theory is that our body wants to do one of two things: grow and reproduce fast (resulting in a short life), or grow and reproduce slow (resulting in a long life).

Basically, either the body wants to grow really fast, reproduce fast, build up a lot of muscles, and your cells will divide. This is great in the short term. You’ll be fertile, you can run, but this is actually at the expense of hunkering down and building a long lasting body. So animals that grow and reproduce fast, like a mouse, will only have a short life span. Whereas an animal like a whale that grows and reproduces slowly will live a long time. 

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David Sinclair CRISPR

Bacteria have an immune system that cuts invaders—that cuts their DNA. And what scientists have done is taken advantage of this system by taking it out of bacteria to create designer mutations—designer gene changes—in animals and humans. It’s a bacterial immune system that corrects genes. It’s now commonly used by scientists. 

What’s interesting is that scientists have been able to mutate genes for many years. But CRISPR allows scientists to choose precisely where they want to make the gene mutation. 

Recently, Chinese researchers have come out and said that he’s used CRISPR to engineer a couple of twin girls to be resistant to HIV/AIDS. 

Many scientists were not happy with this because the Chinese researchers performed this procedure in secrecy and then released it to the world, rather than acting with proper ethics protocols of transparency. 

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David Sinclair recommendations

David Sinclair is very careful not to make any sort of recommendations. However, he is very transparent about his personal habits (diet, supplements, exercise), and what he believes are the best methods for maintaining health and increasing life longevity. Sinclair avoids making recommendations to other people for ethical reasons, and to avoid conflicts of interest. 

With that in mind, let’s look at what Sinclair personally does to maintain his health and life longevity. 

  • He tries to not eat too much. He says it’s quite easy to over eat, so he tries to skip one or two meals a day. He avoids sugars and carbs. He runs once a week. He does workouts on the weekend. He likes saunas. He likes to put his body in some temperature stress by putting his body in heat, and then jumping into a cold bath after. He does this back and forth. He says this works well for yeast, and in the lab this allows yeast to live 30% longer. Generally, he says he eats normally.
     
  • Sinclair tries to avoid eating meat (specifically mammals) if possible. There’s two main reasons for this. There’s a TMAO molecule that seems to cause heart disease. TMAO is found in red meat. Studies have tried giving TMAO to animals, and they subsequently developed heart disease. The other problem with eating meat is there is a lot of aminos in there. And if you eat high levels of amino acids, it will activate the mTOR pathway—one of the three longevity pathways—and you don’t want that. mTOR has evolved to sense times of adversity and stress and hunger.
     
  • Limiting calories, limiting carbs, limiting protein, limiting amino-acids.
     
  • While Sinclair tries to avoid eating mammals, he says that fish is fine. Chicken is better than red meat. He indulges in chicken but tries not to eat too much of it.
     
  • Tries to eat a lot of vegetables, especially the coloured ones. The reasons for this is that you don’t ingest as much protein as you otherwise would. You get all the vitamines, but you also get all the positive molecules from plants that he believes makes you healthy. Resveratrol is just one of a bunch of Polyphenols that plants make when they’re stressed. When plants are stressed they turn colours like purple, red, and blue. Those are molecules that are generally healthy.
     
  • He claims that since NMN gives him an energy boost, he doesn’t need much coffee. A cup of coffee in the morning is all he needs.
     
  • He also drinks diet coke or Pepsi, which he refers to as his vice.
     
  • He eats a lot of raw vegetables like carrots.
     
  • Sinclair’s family has a household ban on smoothies and fruit juices. 
  • Stress is an important thing to keep under control. Sinclair says he tries to “take life in his stride,” not get too worried about it, and focus on what’s important. He claims his heart rate rarely goes up, even under extreme circumstances.
  •  Putting the body through temperature stress, Sinclair believes, activates longevity pathways like the sirtuins. And that’s the trick: activating your body’s defences against aging.
  • Sinclair also tries to avoid airport scanners, and avoid X-rays. Flying is also just as damaging for your body as a flight. Scanners change what’s called the epigenome. While everyone knows what the genome is (DNA), many people haven’t heard of the epigenome. The epigenome is what regulates and reads your genes at the right time. It is the structure of how the DNA is shaped. If you look at a chromosome, you’re seeing the epigenome. What Sinclair believes causes aging is not that you’re losing DNA structure, or that you’re having mutations. The problem is that with scanners and X-rays, you’re changing the reader of the genes. In other words, your cells are losing the ability to read the right genes like they did when you were 20. What you end up with when you’re 80 is an epigenome that cannot properly read the right genes at the right time, and the cells become dysfunctional. The biggest disrupter of the epigenome is a broken chromosome. In other words, a DNA break. An X-ray will have this effect (and in fact, so will going out into the sun, so don’t worry, unless you plan on living in a cave, this is unavoidable.) Sinclair and his colleagues believes that your cells reaction to that break—needing to unwrap the DNA from its chromatin and then re-wrap it—is what disrupts the ability to read the right gene at the right place.
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What exercise routine does David Sinclair have?

Goes to the gym at 2:00 pm on a Sunday. He will have a salad wrap or something healthy before exercising so that he’s not feeling hungry and won’t pass out. He currently uses a trainer. He does an hour of work with a trainer. He also boxes with his son. Then goes to the sauna. If he has a chance during the week he uses his home gym. 

He runs once a week, but would do high intensity running twice a week if he could. 

Sinclair spends 30 minutes on a U-shaped treadmill. His style of running is “sprint, slow down, sprint, slow down.” 

Sinclair also tries to go easy on his joints. He essentially looks for low impact, high intensity exercises. 

He believes that weight lifting can help with anti-aging as well. 

Sinclair tries to weight lift 2-3 days a week.

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David Sinclair clinical trials

David Sinclair and his team are constantly engaging in various trials of the molecules they believe will help extend human life and address a number of aging related diseases. Mostly, Sinclair and his researchers conduct these trials on mice, yeast, or worms. However, they are conducting some trials on humans. 

First, let’s look at some of the trials that Sinclair and his team are conducting on mice:

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How do you reprogram cells to reverse damage? 

There are a set of genes that Sinclair and his colleagues have discovered (there are three primary ones) that can be administered to reverse aging and make you younger again—at least, this is what happens in a mouse. Currently, researchers try this on old mice. Specifically, they’ve performed three trials: 

  1. The researchers have tried pinching the mice’s optic nerve, crushing it, which is a test for growing neurones in the eye. The researchers have found that with their reprogramming techniques, they can make the nerves be just like a newborn baby. In other words, the nerves grow back. 
  2. The researchers have also tested this technique on glaucoma by increasing pressure in the mouses eyes until they lose their eyesight. With their reprogramming technique they can recover the mices eyesight. 
  3. The researchers have tested their reprogramming techniques on old mice, and have been able to restore their eyesight back to normal. 

The method they use is to put these reprogramming genes into a virus (which is already used to treat genetic diseases in the eye) and inject it straight into the mouse’s eyes.

Sinclair says that they’re not yet ready to do trials on humans yet. However, they’re looking to run a clinical trial for this in early 2020. They will begin with glaucoma. This could work for other damaged retinas, or even damaged spinal cords. 

If this all goes well, the idea is that you could hypothetically have an injection in your vein (let’s say when you’re 30 years old) and that releases viruses into your body that will sit dormant until you need them. When might you need them? Sinclair gives the example of a car accident. You could simply “turn on” these viruses with an antibiotic in a pill form. The same process could work if you’re starting to lose your eye sight. 

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David Sinclair blood test

Sinclair has his blood tested every few months using a company called “Inside Tracker.”

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David Sinclair human trials

Scientists are already testing these molecules in clinical trials with elderly people. They’ve been doing this for a number of years now. At Harvard, they’ve been giving NMN, as well as another molecule called MIB-626, which comes from a company called metrobiotec that makes super NAD boosters. He hopes to get MIB-626 on the market in about 3 years. 

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Is aging a disease?

He believes it absolutely should be classified, and thought of, as a disease. Anything else that goes on in the body that negatively affects us is considered a disease. The reason why aging isn’t considered a disease is that it happens to everybody. 

He proposes the scenario: Imagine we were on a planet, or an island, where everyone lives to be 300 years old. And middle-aged modern humans show up, and they’re already starting to look old. The other people on this planet or island are going to look at these modern humans and think “what is wrong with them? We need to treat them!”

It’s only because we all go through aging that we accept it. Sinclair, however, argues that the inability to treat people in their old age and keep them healthy is the biggest threat to the healthcare system and world economy.

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What will the future look like when our lives are elongated? 

In terms of over population and anti-aging, it’s not as bad as you might think. If we all stopped aging today, and everyone just carried on forever, the population growth rate would be less than the rate of immigration. This can’t go on forever. But what we find is that when people are healthier, especially in developing nations, they have fewer kids. So the calculation shows that the human population will eventually taper off to about 9 – 10 billion people and plateau. And that population will be the happiest and healthiest people in the world. 

Being healthier lifts the wealth of a nation. More educated people also have less kids. He also believes that—particularly in the developing world—the more young women are educated and able to make choices for themselves, rather than being subjugated by men (who tend to want to have more children), the less children they will ultimately have. 

What will drag the economy of the planet down is the large aging population in places like Europe and Japan. The average farmer in Japan is 65 years old. This presents a major problem. China is on a similar trajectory. This will be very hard on the economy, as we will waste a significant amount of money on keeping older people alive for the last 10 – 20 years of their life, who will suffer from diseases like frailty and dementia. This will represent trillions of dollars. In the US alone, this will represent about 50 trillion dollars, which could otherwise be spent on figuring out how to solve climate change, better education, saving endangered species etc. This is why Sinclair considers his research into anti-aging as a generous act. 

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Where in the world are people living the longest, and why?

This is debatable. There are “blue zones,” which refers to geographic areas of the world in which people have low rates of chronic diseases, and have longer life spans than anywhere else on Earth. These blue zones include Sardinia, Italiy; the islands of Okinawa, Japan; Loma Linda, California; Nicoya Pininsula, Costa Rica; Icaria, Greece. 

The lifestyle factors that overlap in many of these blue zones include: Family, no smoking, plant-based diets, constant moderate physical activity, social engagement, eating legumes.

Other lifestyle factors that overlap in more than one of these blue zones include: empowered women, sunshine, gardening, high soy consumption, no alcohol, faith, whole grains, and cultural isolation.

According to Sinclair, who is very familiar with the islanders of Okinawa, the most important thing they do for life longevity is not over eat. 

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Quality of life versus length

Sinclair says that while it’s difficult to ask the mice how they’re doing, they do perform frailty studies on the mice. What they’ve found from these is that they’ve got better memories, they’re  stronger, they can run further on a treadmill, they can see better. Sinclair assumes that this would probably indicate that these mice are happier as well. 

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What ties does David Sinclair have to companies selling these molecules?

Sinclair is listed as an inventor on a patent licensed to Elysium Health, which sells NAD booster pills for $60 a bottle. 

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